How to Use this Encylopedia


Each entry file begins with a list of synonymous names. Synonymous names share the same entry file; for example Cymbal and Zimbel are described on the same page, since they are two names for the same stop. “Same stop” means that there are no significant differences in the pitch, tone or construction implied by the different names.

The language(s) of origin appears after each name, in one of the following variations:

Language The language of origin is known.
Language1 ? The language of origin is suspected but not known for certain.
Language1, Language2 The name belongs to two (or more) languages.
Language1/Language2 The name is a hybrid of two languages.
(unknown) The language of origin is unknown.


Every entry file has a section called “Examples”, except where examples are cited in quotations and no other examples are known. Each example has the following format:

StopName pitch, division; location (church, etc.), city, state/province, country; builder year.

Where an example is cited as being the “earliest known” example, this means the earliest example known to the author, based primarily on the Osiris archives. If you know of an earlier example than the one claimed, please let me know.

Index Icons

  The entry contains one or more sound clips.
The entry contains one or more photographs.
The entry contains one or more drawings.
The entry is still under construction.

Copyright © 1999 Edward L. Stauff, all rights reserved.
HowToUse.html - Last updated 9 March 2005.
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